What Is Kinesiology Tape?

What Is Kinesiology Tape?

Kinesiology tape were created in 1979 by Dr. Kenzo Kase after 6 years of clinical development. The idea for the product comes from his search for a treatment for his patients between consultations. Until now, what they had were the traditional tapes, but these limited movement and pressed the affected muscle area, obstructing the body fluids that passed through it.
 
During all this time, the technique has been developing, spreading throughout the world. It is not uncommon to find professional athletes wearing them during competitions and their use in people who are not elite athletes for muscle injuries is more than frequent.
 
What is a kineiology tape?
Kinesiology tape is made up of a cotton fabric together with nylon fibers to give it elasticity, this elasticity is not recommended to be greater than 50% of its length at rest and only in the opposite direction. longitudinal, the technique has not been designed for transverse elasticity. On the other hand, they have an acrylic adhesive that is activated with heat and that allows the bandage to be maintained effectively for 3 to 5 days and from then on its effectiveness gradually decreases. Finally, the inner surface of the bandage has undulations that imitate the skin of the inner face of the hand.
 
As we can see, the key idea of ​​this bandage is the imitation of human skin, hence the elasticity cannot be greater than 50% and the neuromuscular bandage has a wavy shape.
How does the neuromuscular bandage work?
The general operation of the neuromuscular bandage is based on applying the bandage and that, instead of pressing the muscles of the affected area, obstructing the fluids that pass through it and pressing the pain receptors in the area, that the bandage helps to open This distance between the skin and the muscle allows these liquids to circulate and release the receptors, relieving pain.
 
As well as these benefits, the bandage allows the usual movement of the muscle but preventing it from overextending, preventing injuries and overextension of the muscle. Also supporting the muscle to avoid part of the muscular fatigue and making it work less, which allows it to recover faster.
 
Lastly, based on a study by Lyman KJ, in 2017. “Investigating the effectiveness of kinesio taping space correction method in healthy adults on patellofemoral joint and subcutaneous space.” It was shown that the shape of the neuromuscular bandage, in addition to imitating the skin on the inside of the hand, by decompressing the area of ​​the neuroreceptors, these sent signals to the brain that allowed the recovery time to be reduced.
 
What are neuromuscular bandages used for?
The main use of neuromuscular bandages is the treatment of muscular injuries, associations such as the American Physical Therapy Association affirm that the treatment of neuromuscular bandages together with manual therapy is the most effective way to treat muscular injuries.
 
Another widespread use of these bandages is to support weakened or fatigued muscles, either so that they do not reach their maximum extensibility or to have extra support and divide the force that the weakened muscle has to exert.
 
Among other alternative uses, there is the reeducation of the movement of some muscles that work incorrectly or have an incorrect posture (such as the neck or the head).
 
Finally, they are used by professional athletes in moments of great effort and as prevention to avoid injuries or discomfort.
 
Main advantages of neuromuscular bandages
Throughout the article we have been mentioning the many advantages of neuromuscular bandages. Synthesizing them, we would have:
 
  • The bandage lasts with all its effectiveness between 3 and 5 days
  • Reduce muscle fatigue
  • Prevents muscle overextension
  • Relief of muscle pain and inflammation
  • Improves blood and lymphatic flow in the affected area
  • Adjust muscle misalignment caused by muscle spasms and contractures.
  • Prevention of injuries during peaks of high physical activity

    Elaborated by the Technical Department of Calvo Izquierdo S.L.

    How to quote this blog:

    • Calvo Izquierdo. BLOG: What is kinesiology tape? [Internet]. Calvo Izquierdo SL. 2022. Disponible en: https://www.calvoizquierdo.es/en/what-is-kinesiology-tape/

    Bibliography:

    • Kase, J. Wallis, T. Kase (2003) Clinical therapeutic applications of the kinesio taping method, 2nd edition
    • Dr. Kenzo Kase, (2003) Ilustrated Kinesio Taping, 4th edition.
    • Chao YW, et al. (2016). Kinesio taping and manual pressure release: Short-term effects in subjects with myofasical trigger point.
    • Lyman KJ, et al. (2017). Investigating the effectiveness of kinesio taping space correction method in healthy adults on patellofemoral joint and subcutaneous space.
    • Lyman KJ, et al. (2017). Effects of 3 different elastic therapeutic taping methods on the subacromial joint space.
      Types of therapeutic compression systems

      Types of therapeutic compression systems

      As we have already mentioned in the previous post, therapeutic compression is the most effective way to treat ambulatory venous hypertension and its consequences, such as the aggravation of chronic venous insufficiency that causes edema or ulcer in more advanced stages.

      To achieve the goal of reducing venous hypertension, we can do it with different products or systems with which to perform efficient compression.

      Next, we are going to see some of these systems and what their field of application would be. We will talk about 4 basic systems: phlebological compression bandages, graduated compression stockings, medical grade, adaptive compression systems also known as adjustable velcro systems and intermittent compression systems.

      Phlebological Compression Bandage (VCF) and Multiple Component Systems (MCS)

      Recalling a bit of previous information, when we talk about compressive bandages we are talking about one or more bandages that, applied to the area to be treated, generate compression.

      Let us also remember that compression is the sum of other factors:

      • The application tension exerted by the professional when making a bandage.
      • The overlapping of layers (size of the bandage, application technique, etc…).
      • The elasticity of the bandage trying to return to its original elongation.
      • The perimeter of the member.

      The type of elasticity that the bandage applied in a compression bandage should have is a subject that is still being debated today. That said, some of the greatest exponents in the field of compression, such as Partsch, H or Mosti, G, are clear when it comes to preferably recommending the use of short stretch or short traction bandages.

      This thought is reflected in articles such as the one written in 1999 “Inelastic leg compression is more effective to reduce deep venous refluxes than elastic bandages.” Partsch, H (1999), where the need to use short-pull bandages is emphasized due to the greater comfort and better results offered in patients.

      Selecting the most appropriate bandage requires the professional to have in-depth knowledge of the materials used to make the bandages, their technical characteristics, and to be trained in the different compression bandage techniques.

      When speaking of a compression bandage, the use of several bandages and of different compositions is understood, where the first layer has a protective function, either by means of a padding bandage or a foam bandage; and the second or subsequent layers already have the function of compression itself, mainly by means of elastic compression bandages. Commercially it is possible to purchase these products individually or in compression kits, with all the components that the professional may need and may or may not have visual marks with the compression levels exerted by the bandages, if so, it is very important that the professional follows the application technique recommended by the manufacturer and which is usually in a spiral.

      Compression Kits Milliken COFLEX TLC Calamine

      For more information you can visit our previous blogs on compression bandages: BLOG 11: Therapeutic compression ; BLOG 10: Basic bandaging techniques ; BLOG 6: Long- and short-stretch bandages ; BLOG 5 Compression bandages .

      Compression Stockings (Medical grade)

      They are marketed with different fabrics of varying elasticity, made in circular knit or flat knit and sizes ranging from short socks to thigh lengths, pantyhose or cycling shorts.

      There are four levels of therapeutic compression, although there is no consensus on determining the levels of pressure that are exerted, these compression levels are divided into classes, with level 1 being the lowest and level 4 being the highest. Not having an international consensus generates a bit of confusion in scientific reports.

      In order to be considered a medical grade stocking, it must meet a series of requirements where the pressure gradient is considered essential. Therapeutic stockings are those that manage to reduce ambulatory venous hypertension, and are manufactured under strict medical and technical requirements. Specifications include consistency and durability to provide a specific level of pressure on the ankle and decreasing compression graduation.

      Unfortunately, many of the compression stockings that are marketed are non-medical support hosiery, which exert non-uniform or graduated pressure, are not certified, do not need to comply with the strict regulations, medical and technical specifications such as the graduation stockings of compression stockings. compression.

      Source: https://www.mediespana.com/productos/mediven-comfort/

      Adaptive Compression Systems (ACS) or adjustable Velcro systems

      Practically inelastic product that is applied by wrapping the leg and adjusting it with self-adhering velcro, easy for the patient to put on and adjust the pressure to the most comfortable level. Easy to put on by the patient and adjust the pressure to the most comfortable level. It is recommended that the chosen product allows the measurement of pressures within the range stipulated by the prescriber.

      Source: https://www.mediespana.com/productos/circaid-juxtalite/

      Intermittent Compression Systems (ICS)

      Designed to apply compression and promote venous return by pumping blood towards the heart. It also prevents the accumulation of blood or lymphatic fluids that cause swelling and pain (post-thrombotic syndrome, PTS). Indicated to support the use of stockings in patients with a high risk of contracting a DVT, due to surgeries, immobility and/or long periods of travel that limit their mobility.

      Use when other compression options are not available, cannot be used, or have not helped the venous leg ulcer heal after prolonged compression therapy.

       

      When do we use each of the mentioned systems?

      Although it is not clear what is the optimal pressure to achieve ulcer healing, it is still a matter of debate. Yes, some basic criteria can be applied when deciding on which system to use in patients with venous diseases.

      On the other hand, it is also known that venous narrowing requires pressures greater than 42 mmHg. That is why low-elastic bandages are the ones that achieve the best healing rates in most cases, as they are more hemodynamically efficient.

      In the case of edema treatment, where compression as high as in venous ulcers is not necessary, the use of 20 mmHg compression stockings could be considered convenient. Compression stockings if the ulcers are small and not long lasting may be another option.

      In the case of devices with Velcro bands, it can be a good alternative that allows for self-monitoring and does not need to be replaced as often as a compression bandage is replaced. Lastly, and as we have already mentioned, intermittent pneumatic compression is a useful adjunct in patients with restricted mobility.

      Below is a table extracted from the article Partsch, H (2013) Advancement in compression treatment for venous leg ulcers, where it mentions these 4 methods and their main applications:

       Source: Partsch, H (2013) Advancement in compression treatment for venous leg ulcers

      Finally, when applying any of the aforementioned systems, common sense must be used. Each patient in a world and treatments cannot be generalized based on the characteristics of the patient. You always have to think about the comfort of the patient and avoid any system that could cause problems.

      Elaborated by Carmen Alba Moratilla
      With the collaboration of the Technical Department of Calvo Izquierdo S.L.

      Bibliography:

      • Partsch, H., Menzinger, G. and Mostbeck, A. (1999). Inelastic leg compression is more effective in reducing deep venous reflux than elastic bandages. Dermatologic surgery: official publication of the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.], 25 9 , 695-700 .
      • Partsch, Hugo. (2013). Advancement in compression treatment for venous leg ulcers. J Wound Technol. 19. 20-22.
      • Alba Moratilla C. Términos para comprender la compresión terapéutica. Rev. enferm. vasc. [Internet]. 15 de enero de 2022 [citado 17 de julio de 2022];4(Especial):4-32. Disponible en: https://www.revistaevascular.es/index.php/revistaenfermeriavascular/article/view/94
      • Partsch H (2003) Understanding the pathophysiological effects of compression. In: EWMA Position Statement; Understanding Compression Therapy 2003. Medical Education Partnership Ltd, London
      • Principles of compression in venous disease: a practitioner’s guide to treatment and prevention of venous leg ulcers. Wounds International, 2013. Available from: www.woundsinternational.com
      Therapeutic compression

      Therapeutic compression

      The fundamental objective of “therapeutic” compression in the legs is basically to counteract venous hypertension, and it is only achieved when the venous valves function again, and the blood is not retained in the veins.
       
      As a concept, compression therapy is the pressure exerted on an extremity by materials of variable elasticity, to prevent and treat disease of the venolymphatic system. As a consequence, this pressure at the clinical level acts on the superficial and deep venous system.
       
      What is the goal with therapeutic compression?
       
      Any chronic venous disorder, part of the loss of capacity in the venous return to the heart, in such a way that the fluids do not circulate correctly throughout the body, stagnating in the affected area, usually in the lower limbs.
       
      The effects of therapeutic compression are divided into:
       
      • In the interstitial space, it reduces edema, reduces capillary filtration and ensures that the fluid moves towards non-compressed areas, improving lymphatic drainage.
      • In the veins, it reduces the caliber, increases the flow and speed in the veins, reducing venous stagnation and improving the function of the venous pump. All these actions in combination have beneficial effects on microcirculation and cytokines by releasing anti-inflammatory mediators.
       
      When compression is performed, what is sought is to improve that venous return and that circulation of body fluids in the affected area, avoiding fluid stagnation and fluid transfer to extravascular tissue.
       
      In relation to this, the therapeutic effect can be achieved by various compression systems:
       
      • Graduated Compression Stockings (MCM) and multi-layer stocking systems
      • Phlebological Compression Bandage (VCF) and multi-component systems
      • Medical Adaptive Compression Systems (ACS)
      • Intermittent Pneumatic Compression
       
      To apply this treatment, initially in the venolymphatic edema decongestion phase, the most widespread technique is bandages. This generates a pressure gradient through the different membranes that make up this part of the body, passing through the capillary walls and producing the accumulation of fluids in the extravascular tissue.
       
      In this way, whether using compression bandages, or other techniques such as compression stockings, it is possible to regulate the pressure of the lower limbs. The application of one method or another will depend on the characteristics of the patient.

      How to determine which therapeutic compression system to use?
       
      Choosing the correct medical compression system requires a very thorough evaluation of the patient. In order to determine which system is the most suitable and the compression levels required by the patient. The most relevant factors to take into account are:
       
      1. Vascular compromise: Doppler ultrasound and ABI, these values ​​will provide us with the necessary knowledge to rule out arterial pathology and know the mmHg that are required to normalize blood flow and lymphatic drainage.
      2. Comorbidity that accompanies vascular pathology and that can prevent the mmHg that would be required in an optimal situation from being applied. Comorbidity is the sum of a venous condition together with another unrelated one, such as diabetes or a heart problem. If this situation occurs, the therapeutic compression guidelines must be modified, either by applying lower than optimal pressures or by changing the types of tissues with which the compression is performed. Let us remember that less elastic fabrics perform higher work pressures and are more tolerated by patients, that is the reason why both stockings with flat fabric or bandages with low elasticity are more recommended in patients with multiple pathologies or with advanced age.
      3. Social situation: This aspect is relevant when selecting medical compression devices. If the patient does not have enough dexterity to put on just the stocking or bandages and lacks technical or family aids, Velcro-type compression systems or double stockings should be selected if high pressures are required. If not, it will always be more advisable to apply a compressive bandage or a compression stocking.
      4. Economic situation: no less relevant than the previous ones. Within the economic possibilities of the patient, we will look for the most efficient solutions, that is, to achieve the therapeutic objective at the least possible cost. In case of economic difficulties, non-reusable systems (adhesive or cohesive) that do not allow washing and subsequent use were discarded.
      5. State of the disease: Sometimes if the skin is very damaged or the area is very inflamed, it is recommended to use some type of bandage impregnated with zinc (to reduce inflammation and improve healing) or calamine (to alleviate the clinical manifestation of eczema). On the other hand, the more damaged the affected area, the more compression tolerance will be lower.
       
      As has been seen, the level of pressure to be exerted will depend on the diagnosis, the clinical factors (assessing the severity of the symptoms), and especially the edema, lymphatic involvement, and detected comorbidities. For this reason, it is essential to have the diagnosis of a health professional and the correct follow-up of the professional throughout the treatment.
        Elaborated by Carmen Alba Moratilla
        With the collaboration of the Technical Department of Calvo Izquierdo S.L.

        Bibliography:

        • Partsch H (2003) Understanding the pathophysiological effects of compression. In: EWMA Position Statement; Understanding Compression Therapy 2003. Medical Education Partnership Ltd, London
        • Partsch, H. and Mortimer, P. (2015), Compression for leg wounds. Br J Dermatol, 173: 359-369. Doi: 10.1111 / bjd.13851
        • Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for diseases of the veins and lymphatics of the Italian College of Phlebology CIF, revisions 2003-2004
        • Alba Moratilla C. Términos para comprender la compresión terapéutica. Rev. enferm. vasc. [Internet]. 15th of January 2022;4(Especial):4-32. Available on: https://www.revistaevascular.es/index.php/revistaenfermeriavascular/article/view/94
            Training sessions of Compression Therapy

            Training sessions of Compression Therapy

            During the month of July, Calvo Izquierdo organized three training days together with the Milliken company and health professionals. These were held on July 12, 13 and 14, 2022 in Albacete, Madrid and Brugos, with the title “Therapeutic compression training program in patients with phlebolymphatic pathology”.

            The general objectives were to train professionals in the therapeutic compression technique in patients with feblolymphatic pathology and associated dermatitis. Focusing also on aspects such as: Differentiate the most prevalent pathologies that cause edema with dermatitis in the lower limbs, know the different materials necessary to carry out therapeutic compression optimized for dermatitis. and acquire the necessary skills for the correct application of bandages.

            On July 12, we went to the Hospital Univ. Señora del Perpetuo Socorro in Albacete to carry out the training, where Remedios Nieto, Carmen Alba and Claire Stephens were presenting. On Wednesday, July 13, we attended the Simulation Technology Center in Madrid, where we had Carmen Alba, Irene Estévez and Claire Stephens. And finally, on Thursday, July 15, we were in the Burgos Primary Care Management Assembly Hall with the collaboration of Carmen Alba, Dr. Gonzalo González.

            They were three very intense days where knowledge could be shared and a better understanding of the pathology and practice the application of compressive bandages by professionals with extensive experience in the field.

            Many thanks to each and every participant. With special mention to Carmen Alba and Claire Stephens who were part of all the formations in the different cities.

            Also thank Remedios Nieto, Maria Eugenia Diez, Irene Estevez, Gonzalo Gonzalez, Sofia Angulo and Jesús Guirao for their collaboration during the different presentations and for helping us organize these fantastic training sessions.

            Calvo Izquierdo participate ANDE 2022

            Calvo Izquierdo participate ANDE 2022

            We are pleased to inform you that last June 1st until Friday June 3rd we were present at the 32nd NATIONAL NURSING MANAGEMENT NURSES CONFERENCES this year were held in Toledo (Spain), better known as The Imperial City.

            We shared experiences with the national health sector, sharing experiences, generating new learning, giving visibility to our products and, of course, we tried among all health sectors a stronger, more compact and at the same time closer health.

             

            MEDICA 2021

            In our stand we were showing our medical-sanitary products, since they are of great help to the nursing sector at national level.

            They were three intensive days of learning and sharing knowledge that help us to grow every day.

             

            Thanks to all the health professionals who shared their time with us.